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新視野大學英語綜合教程3 課文及課文翻譯Unit4.doc

'新視野大學英語綜合教程3 課文及課文翻譯Unit4.doc'
?Work incorporate America1 It is not surprising that modern children tend to look blank and dispirited when informed that they will someday have to "go to work and make a living". The problem is that they cannot visualize what work is in corporate America.2 Not so long ago, when a parent said he was off to work, the child knew very well what was about to happen. His parent was going to make something or fix something. The parent could take his offspring to his place of business and let him watch while he repaired a buggy or built a table.3 When a child asked, "What kind of work do you do, Daddy?" his father could answer in terms that a child could come to grips with, such as "I fix steam engines" or "I make horse collars".4 Well, a few fathers still fix steam engines and build tables, but most do not. Nowadays, most fathers sit in glass buildings doing things that are absolutely incomprehensible to children. The answers they give when asked, "What kind of work do you do, Daddy?" are likely to be utterly mystifying to a child.5 "I sell space." "I do market research." "I am a data processor." "I am in public relations." "I am a systems analyst." Such explanations must seem nonsense to a child. How can he possibly envision anyone analyzing a system or researching a market?6 Even grown men who do market research have trouble visualizing what a public relations man does with his day, and it is a safe bet that the average systems analyst is as baffled about what a space salesman does at the shop as the average space salesman is about the tools needed to analyze a system.7 In the common everyday job, nothing is made any more. Things are now made by machines. Very little is repaired. The machines that make things make them in such a fashion that they will quickly fall apart in such a way that repairs will be prohibitively expensive. Thus the buyer is encouraged to throw the thing away and buy a new one. In effect, the machines are making junk.8 The handful of people remotely associated with these machines can, of course, tell their inquisitive children "Daddy makes junk". Most of the workforce, however, is too remote from junk production to sense any contribution to the industry. What do these people do?9 Consider the typical 12-story glass building in the typical American city. Nothing is being made in this building and nothing is being repaired, including the building itself. Constructed as a piece of junk, the building will be discarded when it wears out, and another piece of junk will be set in its place.10 Still, the building is filled with people who think of themselves as working. At any given moment during the day perhaps one-third of them will be talking into telephones. Most of these conversations will be about paper, for paper is what occupies nearly everyone in this building.11 Some jobs in the building require men to fill paper with words. There are persons who type neatly on pa。省略部分。r. There are persons who file paper and persons who unfile paper.12 Some persons mail paper. Some persons telephone other persons and ask that paper be sent to them. Others telephone to ascertain the whereabouts of paper. Some persons confer about paper. In the grandest offices, men approve of some paper and disapprove of other paper.13 The elevators are filled throughout the day with young men carrying paper from floor to floor and with vital men carrying paper to be discussed with other vital men.14 What is a child to make of all this? His father may be so eminent that he lunches with other men about paper. Suppose he brings his son to work to give the boy some idea of what work is all about. What does the boy see happening?15 His father calls for paper. He reads paper. Perhaps he scowls at paper. Perhaps he makes an angry red mark on paper. He telephones another man and says they had better lunch over paper.16 At lunch they talk about paper. Back at the office, the father orders the paper retyped and reproduced in quintuplicate, and then sent to another man for comparison with paper that was reproduced in triplicate last year.17 Imagine his poor son afterwards mulling over the mysteries of work with a friend, who asks him, "What's your father do?" What can the boy reply? "It beats me," perhaps, if he is not very observant. Or if he is, "Something that has to do with making junk, I think. Same as everybody else."在美國大公司工作要是有人跟現在的孩子說他們長大后要“去工作以謀生”,他們往往會表現出一臉的茫然和沮喪,這并不奇怪。問題在于,他們想象不出美國的大公司里都有哪些工作。早些年,當家長說他要去工作了,孩子很清楚他去做什么。他不是去制造東西就是去修理東西。父親可能會帶著孩子去他干活的地方,讓他看著自己修四輪小車,或是做桌子。要是孩子問“爸爸,您是干什么的?”,爸爸會用孩子能理解的語言回答,比如:“我是修蒸汽機的”,或者“我是做馬項圈的”?,F在還是有些父親在修蒸汽機或是做桌子,但絕大多數人都不干這個了?,F在,大多數的父親坐在有玻璃外墻的大樓里,做著孩子們根本理解不了的工作。當被問到“爸爸,您做什么工作?”時,他們的回答往往讓孩子大惑不解?!拔沂峭其N空間的?!薄拔易鍪袌鲅芯康??!薄拔沂菙祿幚韱T?!薄拔以诠P部工作?!薄拔沂窍到y分析師?!边@些解釋對小孩子來說肯定是毫無意義的。他怎么可能想象得出一個人是怎么去分析系統和研究市場的呢?即使是那些從事市場研究工作的成年人也很難想象公關部的人每天都在做些什么,一名普通的系統分析師肯定不知道空間推銷員在店里都干些什么,就好像空間推銷員對分析系統的工具也一竅不通一樣。在普通的日常工作中,沒有什么東西是手工制作出來的了?,F在什么東西都是機器生產的。也極少有東西需要修理。機器生產出來的東西很容易散架,而這樣的東西要拿去修理的話費用非常高,不值得。于是消費者被慫恿著把那東西扔了,再買個新的。事實上,機器是在生產垃圾。少數跟這些機器能搭上點關系的人當然可以對喜歡追根究底的孩子說:“爸爸是制造垃圾的?!钡?,大多數勞動者離生產垃圾的現場很遠,根本感受不到自己對垃圾制造業的貢獻。那這些人到底在做些什么呢?想想美國城市里一棟典型的12層玻璃外墻的樓房吧。在這棟樓里,沒有什么被生產出來,也沒有什么在被修理著,連樓房本身也用不著修。這棟樓本來就是被當成一件垃圾建造起來的,所以當大樓變得破舊了,就會被當做垃圾扔掉,在原地蓋一棟新的垃圾樓。即便如此,大樓里仍然擠滿了自以為是在工作的人。一天中任何一個時間里,大概會有三分之一的人在打電話。電話里說的大都與文件有關,因為整棟樓里幾乎每一個人都在為文件而忙前忙后。大樓里的有些工作需要有人在文件上寫字。有些人要把文字工整地打成文件,有些人要看文件,并在頁邊空白處作批注。有的人要復印文件,有的則在遞送文件。有的人把文件存檔,有的則往外取文件。有些人寄文件,有些則打電話讓別人把文件送過來。有的人打電話打聽文件在哪兒,有的則在商討文件。在最豪華的辦公室里,有的文件經審議通過了,有的則被駁回。電梯里從早到晚都擠滿了把文件從一層樓送到另一層樓的年輕人,以及拿著文件的重要人士,他們正要和其他重要人士商討文件。一個孩子怎么能理解這一切呢?也許他父親身居要職,午餐時都要和別人討論文件。試想他帶著兒子來上班,讓孩子對他的工作有一些概念。孩子能看到些什么呢?他父親打電話讓別人送文件過來,他讀文件??赡芩麜_著文件發火,或是在文件上用紅筆憤怒地打個記號。他打電話告訴另一個人,說中午最好一起吃飯討論有關文件的問題。午飯時,他們討論文件?;氐睫k公室,父親讓人把文件重新輸入并一式五份重新打印好給另一個人,那個人要把這份文件和去年一式三份的那份文件作比較??梢韵胂?,在這之后如果有小伙伴問他“你爸爸是做什么的?”,這個可憐的孩子和他的小伙伴都會對這種神秘的工作百思不得其解。他會怎么回答呢?如果他的觀察力不夠敏銳,他也許會說:“我說不清?!比绻浅I朴谟^察,他會回答說:“我想,是做跟制造垃圾相關的工作吧。跟其他任何人一樣?!?
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