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道教簡介(英語).doc

'道教簡介(英語).doc'
?Taoism is the native religion of China, it also be called Daoism or Taochiao.Taoism is China’s traditional philosophyRepresentativeThe primary religious figures in Taoism are Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, two scholars who dedicated their lives two balancing their inner spirits.道教最初的代表是老子和莊子,兩位學者獻身于平衡內在精神。Totem The most common graphic representation of Taoist theology is the circular Yin Yang figure. It represents the balance of opposites in the universe. When they are equally present, all is calm. When one is outweighed by the other, there is confusion and disarray. The Yin and Yang are a model that the faithful follow, an aid that allows each person to contemplate the state of his or her lives. 道教理論的最普遍圖形表示就是陰和陽循環的圓形圖像。它代表了宇宙中相反事物的平衡關系。當它們都平等地呈現出來,所有一切都會平靜。當其中一個超過另一個的時候,就會出現混淆和混亂。陰和陽是信徒追隨的原型,有助于讓一個人去凝視他或她的生命狀態。More a mode of living than an actual theology, Taoism asks that each person focuses on the world around him or her in order to understand the inner harmonies of the universe. It is a kind of religious system heavily focused on meditation and contemplation. The Tao surrounds everyone and one must listen to find enlightenment. 這更加像是一種生命模式,而不是真實的理論,道教要求每一個人都把注意力集中于他或她周圍的世界,以致明白宇宙的內在協調。這是一種信仰體系,重重地集中于冥想和注視上。道圍繞關每一個人,人必須傾聽和發現啟迪。ClassicsTraditionally, Taoism has been attributed to three sources, the oldest being the legendary 'Yellow Emperor', but the most famous is Lao Tse's Tao Teh Ching. According to tradition, Lao Tse was an older contemporary of Kung Fu Tse (Confucius). The third source is Chuang Tse's (untitled) work. 傳統上,道教是歸因于三個來源,最古老的是“黃帝”傳說,但最著名的是老子的《道德經》。依照傳統,老子是比同時代的孔夫子(孔子)年長的人。第三個來源就是莊子的作品。But the original source of Taoism is said to be the ancient I Ching, The Book Of Changes. 道教的最初來源據說是古代的《易經》。The Tao was written in a time of feudal warfare and constant conflict. Lao Tzu was reflecting on a way which would stop the warfare, a realistic path for humanity to follow which would end the conflict. And so he came up with a few pages of short verses, which became the Tao Te Ching. This is the original book of Tao. 道德經是寫在領地戰爭和持續沖突的時期里面,老子是思考一種停止戰爭的方式,一種讓人類追隨,會結束斗爭的現實主義道路。因此,他寫了幾頁簡短的詩句,后來成為了道德經。這就是道德經的來源。ContentReverence for ancestor spirits and immortals are also common in popular Taoism. Organized Taoism distinguishes its ritual activity from that of the folk religion, which some professional Taoists (Daoshi) view as debased. Chinese alchemy(including Neidan), astrology, cuisine, several Chinese martial arts, Chinese traditional medicine, fengshui, and many styles of qigong breath training disciplines have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history.對祖先的精神和神仙也普遍流行的道教。道教儀式活動組織區分它與民間宗教,一些專業的道教(Daoshi)認為貶低。中國煉金術(包括Neidan),占星術,美食,一些中國武術,中醫,風水,許多風格的氣功呼吸訓練學科已經與道教歷史上交織在一起。Principles Taoist theology focuses on doctrines of wu wei ("action that does not involve struggle or excessive effort" ) , spontaneity, humanism, relativism and emptiness. This philosophical aspect of Taoism emphasizes various themes found in the Tao Te Ching (道德經) such as naturalness, vitality, peace, "yielding" (wu wei), emptiness (refinement), detachment, the strength of softness (or flexibility), and in the Zhuangzi such as receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior. Taoism is a peaceful religion.道教理論關注的學說無為(“行動,不涉及斗爭或過度的努力”)、自發性、人文主義、相對主義和空虛。這種哲學方面的道教強調各種主題發現在自知者明(道德經)如自然、活力、和平、“屈服”(無為),空虛(細分)、超然,強度柔和(或靈活性),莊子如感受性、自發性、相對主義的人類的生活方式,和指導行為的講話方式。道教是一個和平的宗教。HistoryTaoism's origins may be traced to prehistoric Chinese religions in China. They are found in the composition of the Tao Te Ching (3rd or 4th century BCE), or amidst the activity of Zhang Daoling (2nd century AD).道教的起源可以追溯到史前中國宗教在中國。他們發現在作文的自知者明(第三或第四世紀BCE),或在活動的張Daoling(公元2世紀)。 Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid second century CE. Taoism gained official status in China during the Tang Dynasty, whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative. Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang. Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes. The Qing Dynasty, however, much favored Confucian classics and rejected Taoist works. During the eighteenth century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virtually all Taoist books.老子收到帝國承認神學在二世紀中期CE。道教在中國獲得官方地位,唐朝期間的皇帝聲稱老子作為他們的相對。幾首歌皇帝,最明顯的是Huizong,活躍在促進道教,收集道家經典,出版版本的Daozang。方面的儒家思想、道教和佛教是有意識地合成新儒家的學校,最終成為國家官僚目的帝國正統。清朝,然而,大部分青睞儒家經典和拒絕了道教的作品。十八世紀時,皇家圖書館是構成,但排除了幾乎所有的道教的書。
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