無機非金屬修正版

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'無機非金屬修正版'
?Reference answer to the reviewed questions(僅供參考,不當之處請自行改正)(一) Give examples of recent developments in materials science and engineering that haveaffected technologies such as information,transportation,production,medical and entertainment.For example,the advances in semiconductor and liquid crystal (LCD) technology lead to evolutions of telephones and watches.Also, advances in materials and process technology have provided for smaller, lighter, and even flexible batteries that last longer, thus allowing greater functions in cell phones and watches, as well as for computers and other devices. Thirdly, Synthetic polymer, polyurethane plastic (聚氨酯塑料)wheels on skates give improved traction, shock absorption and lighter weight over the older steel. At last,.advances in materials technology brought on new containers made of two-piece aluminum and steel cans and barrier packages made of laminated composites of plastic, aluminum, and paper. These new containers are light-weight, will not break, and offer long shelf life for their contents.(二) Give one of ceramic material classifications.For example,ceramis materials can be classified into traditional ceramis materials and advanced ceramis materials.The former one is based primarily on natural raw materials of clay and silicates,including clay products,glass,cement.The latter one is artifical raw materials, exibiting specialized properties and requiring more sophisticated processing.It includes structural ceramic(wear par-省略部分-Polymers : Thermoplastics plastics ; Thermoset plastics ; Elastomersl Ceramics : Glasses ; Glass ceramics ; Graphite ; Diamondl Composites: Reinforced plastics; Metal-matrix composites; Ceramic-matrix composites Sandwich structures ; Concrete l Semiconductors(十八)What is the structural difference between asbestos(石棉), kaolinite(高嶺土) and zeolite(沸石)?.大家幫忙找找看。(十九)Describe PPG float glass process. In the PPG process, the refined glass flows in a continuous, full-width ribbon onto a molten bath of tin contained in an air-cooled, refractory-lined steel shell.(二十)The principles of glass tempering strengthening.(玻璃回火強化)大家幫忙找找看。(二十一)The function of annealing (退火)process for glass products manufacturing Purpose--- to reduce internal stresses; in annealing oven Reasons--- 1)Walls are comparatively thick and cooling will not be even. 2)The inner and outer skins of a glass become rigid 3)The still-contracting inner portion build up internal stresses 4)Uneven cooling develop substantial stresses in the glass.(二十二)The difference between glass and crystals. Crystals: ordered atomic structures mean smaller volumes & lower energies ?thermodynamically stable phase Glasses: ?lack of long-range order results in larger volumes, higher energies; atoms could rearrange to form denser structures if given enough thermal energy and time. ?thermodynamically metastable phase
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